Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019 Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

    The years of the Republic

    The study, discussion and promulgation of reparatory legislative measures continued over a period of forty years, ending in 2000 with the institution of the Day of Remembrance. Their purpose was to offer reparation and compensation in practical and moral terms to individuals, communities, bodies and associations persecuted for political or racial reasons by the previous fascist regime by means of the «special legislation» of 1925 and the legislation «in Defence of the Race». This protracted and essential reparatory process is testament to the devastating effect the legislation had.

    Decreto ministeriale 25 novembre 1946 - Deferral of deadline set in Article 7 of Royal Deputy Legislative Decree no. 393, 5 May 1946, relating to the reclamation of assets confiscated, impounded or otherwise taken from persons persecuted for racial reasons.

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 23 dicembre 1946, n. 472Deferral of deadline for the confirmation or nullification of acts promulgated by authority of the self-styled government of the Italian Social Republic (GU no. 298 SO (Supplemento Ordinario), 31 December 1946).

    Decreto del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 14 gennaio 1947, n. 68Regulations for the implementation of Royal Deputy Legislative Decree no. 848, 9 November 1945, relating to the retirement conditions of employees of railway, tram and inland-waterway traffic companies operating state concessions discharged for political or racial reasons (GU no. 59, 12 March 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 29 marzo 1947. n. 148Deferral of deadline for the nullification of acts promulgated by authority of the self-styled Social Republic (GU no. 75, 1 April 1947). 

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 21 aprile 1947, n. 373Appointment process to positions in elementary and middle schools with regard to both ex-combatant and non ex-combatant candidates and to certain categories of persons persecuted for political or racial reasons (GU no. 120, 28 May 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 11 maggio 1947, n. 364Inheritance succession with regard to persons deceased as a result of racial persecution after 8 September 1943 who did not leave heirs entitled to succeed (GU no. 119, 27 May 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 29 maggio 1947, n. 526Procedure for the disbursement of funds required to manage impounded assets belonging to citizens of Jewish race and to the States of the United Nations and their subjects (GU no. 146, 30 June 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 30 giugno 1947, n. 612Deferral of deadline for the confirmation or nullification of acts promulgated by authority of the self-styled Social Republic (GU no. 158, 14 July 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 17 luglio 1947, n. 762Deferral of deadline set in Article 7 of Royal Deputy Legislative Decree no. 393, 5 May 1946, relating to the reclamation of assets confiscated, impounded or otherwise taken from persons persecuted for racial reasons (GU no. 187, 18 August 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 31 luglio 1947, n. 771Extension of deadline for exercising the right of rescission allowed in Article 19 of Royal Deputy Legislative Decree no. 222, 12 April 1945, containing complementary and supplementary regulations and implementation regulations relating to Royal Decree-Law no. 26, 20 January 1944, regarding the reinstatement of patrimonial rights to persons affected by the racial measures (GU no. 190, 21 August 1947). 

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 31 luglio 1947, n. 801Modifications to Article 6 of Royal Decree-Law no. 26, 20 January 1944, on the reinstatement of patrimonial rights to persons persecuted for racial reasons (GU no. 196, 28 August 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 26 ottobre 1947, n. 1251Retirement measures for university professors who have reached retirement age (GU no. 269, 22 November 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 31 ottobre 1947, n. 1153Further deferral until 31 March 1948 of deadline set in Articles 3 and 4 of Royal Deputy Legislative Decree no. 249, 5 October 1944, for the confirmation or nullification of provisions promulgated by the self-styled Social Republic (GU no. 251, 31 October 1947).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 30 novembre 1947, n. 1640«Libera Docenza» review, and admission to the examination session scheduled in Legislative Decree no. 525, 26 May 1947, for those who were excluded from or were unable to take part in previous sessions due to political or racial reasons or to circumstances relating to hostilities (GU no. 37, 13 February 1948).

    Decreto legislativo del Capo provvisorio dello Stato 3 dicembre 1947, n. 1725Restoration of the state contribution to Jewish nursery schools in accordance with Law no. 343, 30 July 1896 (GU no. 53, 3 March 1948).

    Decreto ministeriale 4 dicembre 1947 - Deferral of deadline set out in Article 1 of  Provisional Head of State Legislative Decree no. 762, 17 July 1947, relating to the assets of persons persecuted for racial reasons by authority of the self-styled government of the Social Republic.

    Decreto legislativo 23 marzo 1948, n. 265Integration of regulations concerning the legal and financial status of university professors (GU no. 90 SO, 16 April 1948).

    Decreto legislativo 16 aprile 1948, n. 577Appointment process to positions in middle schools with regard to some categories of persons persecuted for political or racial reasons (GU no. 127, 3 June 1948).

    Decreto legislativo 7 maggio 1948, n. 1033Additional measures to the regulations on readmission into service of university professors previously discharged for political or racial reasons (GU no. 181, 6 August 1948).

    Legge 16 febbraio 1949, n. 84Concessions for accreditation as certified auditors in favour of persons who were not members of the defunct fascist party or who were subject to the racial legislation (GU no. 71, 28 March 1949). 

    Legge 5 gennaio 1950, n. 23Ratification with modifications of Legislative Decree no. 1033, 7 May 1948, concerning additional regulatory measures for the readmission in service of university professors previously discharged for political or racial reasons (GU no. 41, 18 February 1950).

    Legge 19 gennaio 1950, n. 24Ratification with modifications of Provisional Head of State Legislative Decree no. 1640, 30 November 1947, relating to the «Libera Docenza» review and admission to the examination session scheduled in Legislative Decree no. 525, 26 May 1947, for those who were excluded from or were unable to take part in previous sessions due to political or racial reasons or to circumstances relating to hostilities (GU no. 41, 18 February 1950).

    Legge 11 aprile 1950, n. 220Extension of regulations in Royal Decree-Laws no. 9, 6 January 1944 and no. 25, 20 January 1944, to employees of National Interest Banks readmitted into service (GU no. 112, 16 May 1950).

    Legge 19 maggio 1950, n. 355Ratification with modifications of Legislative Decree no. 265, 23 March 1948, relating to the integration of regulations concerning the legal and financial status of university professors (GU no. 142, 23 June 1950).

    Legge 10 agosto 1950, n. 806Permanent placement of teachers formerly persecuted for political or racial reasons in the state education system (GU no. 225, 30 September 1950).

    Legge 14 gennaio 1953, n. 50Probationary period for school employees appointed as a result of the competitions reserved for those persecuted for political or racial reasons (GU no. 41, 19 February 1953).

    Legge 12 febbraio 1955, n. 44Re-employment and retirement conditions of former employees of public bodies in conflict zones ceded as a result of the Peace Treaty or otherwise withdrawn from Italian administration (GU no. 51, 3 March 1955).

    Legge 10 marzo 1955, n.96Benefits awarded to antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 70, 26 March 1955).

    Legge 9 aprile 1955, n. 266Extension of Law no. 1515, 18 December 1951, to those who suffered racial or political persecution (GU no. 92, 21 April 1955).

    Legge 1° luglio 1955, n. 550 - Measures allowing heads of hospital departments removed from service for political or racial reasons to remain in service until age 70 (GU no. 161, 15 July 1955).

    Legge 8 novembre 1956, n. 1317Additions and modifications to Law no. 96, 10 March 1955, relating to benefits awarded to Italian antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 302, 29 November 1956).

    Legge 8 dicembre 1956, n. 1429Career placement of teachers in elementary, secondary and specialist art schools who meet the conditions of persons persecuted for political or racial reasons and have been declared winners of special competitions (GU no. 1, 2 January 1957).

    Legge 25 aprile 1957, n. 280Rectification of civil status documents relating to persons persecuted for political reasons from 8 September 1943 until the Liberation (GU no. 117, 8 May 1957).

    Legge 11 giugno 1960, n. 602Deferral of retirement age for professors of Fine Arts Academies and Music Conservatories persecuted for political or racial reasons, and inclusion of university professors excluded from competitions for political or racial reasons in the benefits laid down in Law no. 355, 19 May 1950 (GU no. 162, 4 July 1960).

    Legge 14 marzo 1961, n. 130Recognition of rights of citizens previously deported or interned by the enemy (GU no. 75, 24 March 1961).

    Legge 3 aprile 1961, n. 284Modifications to the regulations of Law no. 96, 10 March 1955 and Law no. 1317, 8 November 1956, relating to benefits awarded to Italian antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 103, 27 April 1961).

    Legge 28 luglio 1961, n. 831 - Benefits awarded to heads and teachers in elementary, secondary and specialist art schools, to school inspectors, national inspectors, and to support staff in secondary and specialist art schools (GU no. 214, 30 August 1961).

    Decreto ministeriale 1° settembre 1961Permanent placement in secondary and specialist art schools of teachers who meet special conditions (GU no. 229, 14 September 1961).

    Decreto ministeriale 26 ottobre 1961Deferral of deadlines set by Ministerial Decree, 1 September 1961, for the permanent placement of teachers who meet special conditions (GU no. 269, 28 October 1961).

    Legge 2 febbraio 1962, n. 37Modifications and interpretative regulations relating to Law no. 1152, 14 December 1954 and Law no. 471, 3 April 1958 (GU no. 45, 19 February 1962).

    Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 6 ottobre 1963, n. 2043Regulations for the division of the sum disbursed by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with the Bonn Agreement of 2 June 1961 relating to the compensation of Italian citizens victims of National Socialist persecution (GU no. 16, 21 January 1964).

    Legge 15 dicembre 1965, n. 1424Legal clarification of Article 3 of Law no. 284, 3 April 1961, with reference to modifications to the regulations in Law no. 96, 10 March 1955, and Law no. 1317, 8 November 1956, relating to benefits awarded to Italian antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 1, 3 January 1966).

    Legge 24 aprile 1967, n. 261Supplementary additions and modifications to the legislation in favour of Italian antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and their surviving families (GU no. 122, 16 May 1967).

    Legge 29 settembre 1967, n. 955Supplementary additions and modifications to the current measures relating to grants of compensation and subsidies for war damages (GU no. 270, 28 October 1967).

    Legge 14 marzo 1968, n. 211Modifications to Articles 10 and 13 of the Decree of the President of the Republic no. 2043, 6 October 1963, relating to compensation for victims of National Socialism (GU no. 79, 26 March 1968).

    Legge 18 marzo 1968, n. 238New deadlines for the enactment of the provisions in Article 39 of Law no. 903, 21 July 1965, and supplementary regulations relating to the same (GU no. 81, 28 March 1968).

    Legge 18 marzo 1968, n. 313Revision of wartime pension legislation (GU no. 90 SO, 6 April 1968).

    Legge 28 marzo 1968, n. 361Legal clarification of Article 1 of Law no. 96, 10 March 1955, and Article 1 of Law no. 284, 3 April 1961, relating to benefits awarded to Italian antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 94, 11 April 1968).

    Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 27 aprile 1968, n. 488Increase and new system for calculating pensions paid through the compulsory insurance scheme (GU no. 109, 30 April 1968).

    Legge 2 dicembre 1969, n. 997Supplementary regulations to Article 4 of Law no. 96, 10 March 1955, relating to benefits awarded to antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons and to their surviving families (GU no. 3, 5 January 1970).

    Legge 24 maggio 1970, n. 336Regulations in favour of civil service employees and those of public sector bodies who are ex-combatants or considered as such (GU no. 144, 11 June 1970).

    Legge 11 giugno 1971, n. 441Clarification of Article 78 of the Peace Treaty between Italy and the Allied and Associated Powers signed in Paris on 10 February 1947 and implemented by Legislative Decree no. 1430, 28 November 1947, relating to Italian citizens of Jewish origin (GU no. 172, 9 July 1971).

    Legge 8 luglio 1971, n. 541Regulations for the application of Law no. 336, 24 May 1970, setting out benefits to public employees who are ex-combatants or considered as such (GU no. 199, 7 August 1971).

    Legge 9 ottobre 1971, n. 824Regulations for the implementation, modification and integration of Law no. 336, 24 May 1970, relating to regulations in favour of state employees and employees of public sector bodies who are ex-combatants or considered as such (GU no. 262, 15 October 1971).

    Decreto ministeriale 25 agosto 1972Procedures with regard to Article 6, subparagraph 3, of Law no. 824, 9 October 1971, setting out regulations for the implementation, modification and integration of Law no. 336, 24 May 1970 (GU no. 239, 13 September 1972).

    Legge 20 dicembre 1973, n. 824Regulations regarding officers and NCOs performing National Service and their reserves recalled or kept in service for lengthy periods of time (GU no. 332, 28 December 1973).

    Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 29 dicembre 1973, n. 1092Approval of the Consolidating Act of regulations for the retirement conditions of civilian and military state employees (GU no. 120 SO, 9 May 1974).

    Legge 23 febbraio 1974, n. 63State administration financial statement for the year 1972 (GU no. 74 SO, 20 March 1974).

    Ministerial Ordinance 1 June 1974 – Permanent appointment of certified teachers to Slovene language secondary schools in Trieste and Gorizia.

    Decreto-legge 8 luglio 1974, n. 261Modifications to Law no. 336, 24 May 1970, relating to regulations in favour of state employees and employees of public sector bodies, ex-combatants or considered as such (GU no. 178, 9 July 1974).

    Legge 14 agosto 1974. n. 355Conversion into law, with modifications, of Decree-Law no. 261, 8 July 1974, setting out modifications to Law no. 336, 24 May 1970, relating to regulations in favour of state employees and employees of public sector bodies, ex-combatants or considered as such (GU no. 217, 20 August 1974).

    Legge 10 ottobre 1974, n. 496Measures in favour of categories of police personnel (GU no. 275, 22 October 1974).

    Legge 16 gennaio 1978, n. 17Regulations for the application of Law no. 541, 8 July 1971, setting out benefits to former deportees and persons persecuted for political or racial reasons, considered as ex-combatants (GU no. 33, 2 February 1978).

    Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 23 dicembre 1978, n. 915Consolidating Act of the regulations on war pensions (GU no. 28 SO, 29 January 1979).

    Legge 18 novembre 1980, n. 791Establishment of lifetime payment award for former deportees to Nazi death camps (GU no. 329, 1 December 1980).

    Legge 22 dicembre 1980, n. 932Supplementary additions and modifications to the legislation setting out benefits to antifascists persecuted for political reasons and persons persecuted for racial reasons (GU no. 10, 12 January 1981).

    Legge 26 aprile 1983, n. 131Conversion into law with modifications of Decree-Law no. 55, 28 February 1983, setting out urgent provisions regarding the local finance sector for the year 1983 (GU no. 117, 30 April 1983).

    Ministerial Decree 10 February 1987 – Approval of supervisory powers and instructions for application relating to the calculation of capital value in regard to maximum pension benefits paid as a result of benefits awarded to combatants through the National Social Security Institute (INPS), in compliance with Laws no. 336, 24 May 1970, no. 541, 8 July 1971 and no. 824, 9 October 1971.

    Legge 20 luglio 2000, n. 211Institution of the «Day of Remembrance» in commemoration of the extermination and persecution of the Jewish people and of the Italian military and political deportees to the Nazi camps (GU no. 177, 31 July 2000).

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Drawn up by Sergio Ciappina