Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy


    The bibliography relating to individual Intellectuals displaced from fascist Italy is to be found in each biographical entry, after the listing of their principal publications and that of the archival sources relating to them. Further and fuller references to biographical, archival and web resources are in the footnotes to each individual entry.

    The study of intellectual emigration from fascism requires both preliminary and definitive surveys of those who were expelled and those who were reinstated. The numbers are for the present imprecise, especially as regards those not working in the public sector or holding full-time positions, including in the universities. This emerged from the recent conferences and discussions on the 80th anniversary of the Racial Laws in 2018. The indispensable lists and studies on full-time professors that Roberto Finzi has provided us with (L’università italiana e le leggi antiebraiche, Rome, Editori Riuniti, 2003 [original edition 1997]), and those by Angelo Ventura on assistants and non-tenured positions (La persecuzione fascista contro gli ebrei nell’Università italiana, «Rivista storica italiana», 109, 1997, pp. 121-197), have been followed by further updates and investigations, up to and including Il registro, a listing of some seven hundred state employees of various grades, published by Annalisa Capristo and Giorgio Fabre (Bologna, Il Mulino, 2018). A special section of the extremely useful bibliographical guide edited by Enzo Collotti and Marta Baiardi (Shoah e deportazione, Rome, Carocci, 2011) is dedicated to «the repercussions on culture and the universities» of the racial legislation.

    The following list covers publications on so-called intellectual emigration from Fascism and Nazism in general, and omits individual cases. Italian and foreign publications on the specific situation in Italy have been included among books and articles produced by the much larger international historiographical output on the diaspora of European intellectuals. The list is in chronological order to better follow the trend that began in the 1980s – although the choice has been made to include the earlier book of Laura Capon Fermi that has never been translated into Italian. It was indeed at the end of the 1980s that the study of the Holocaust began, after considerable delay, to gain momentum in Italy too. This work has concentrated up until now on the history of the deportations and of those who did not survive. It has not addressed itself to the consideration of those who, despite all their many tribulations and pain, did survive, some indeed because they emigrated.

    The present bibliography offers some pointers and makes possible a preliminary assessment of the specific context to which this project is devoted.

    It is clear that international historiography on Jewish intellectual emigration has concentrated on movement from Nazi Germany and central Europe, in the same way that the aid organisations founded in the 1930s concentrated on German displaced scholars. The history of intellectual emigration from Italy, which also involved foreigners who had already fled to Italy, remains to a large degree submerged and still requires proper study. Even in the listings of Jewish scholars and professionals which have been drawn up by subject or profession and not by nationality (for example, Nathan Koren, Jewish physicians. A biographical index, Jerusalem, Israel University Press, 1971), the scarce attention paid to Italians for the period that interests us fails to convey their actual presence. The general perception of Italian immigration to the US for example does not encompass intellectuals (with the exception of a few very well-known cases). Even the intentionally self-congratulatory volume Italiani di America. Enciclopedia biografica (New York, Cocce Press, 1949), compiled in the post-war years, makes barely any mention of educated and highly qualified refugees.

    Historical research on Italian refugees has focused on antifascist political emigration (fuoriuscitismo), a topic that began to be addressed in the middle years of last century in Aldo Garosci’s Storia dei fuorusciti (Bari, Laterza, 1953). Political exile is clearly not the same as the politically heterogeneous emigration of Jewish intellectuals which encompassed antifascists, but comprised in the main those who were uncommitted or indeed fascist, and who left Italy after 1938 because they were unable to work or study. Only in a few cases did the two groups share a similar identity of political and intellectual characteristics, even if they differed in their networks of relationships and their choices regarding whether or not to return. Further exploration of the multifaceted intellectual emigration from fascist Italy awaits the availability of more information, studies and, while still possible, of personal recollections.

    • Laura Fermi, Illustrious Immigrants. The Intellectual Migration from Europe 1930/41, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1968, rev. ed. 1971.
    • Guide to the Archival Materials of the German-Speaking Emigration to the United States after 1933, 2 vols, Charlottesville, publ. for the Bibliographical society of the University of Virginia by the University Press of Virginia, 1978-1991.
    • Institut für Zeitgeschichte - Research Foundation for Jewish Immigration, New York, in collaboration with Werner Röder et alii (eds.), Biographisches Handbuch der Deutschsprachigen Emigration nach 1933-1945 / International Biographical Dictionary of Central European Emigrés 1933-1945, Berlin-Boston, De Gruyter-Saur, 1980-1983.
    • Lewis Feuer, The Stages in the Social History of Jewish Professors in American Colleges and Universities, «American Jewish History», 71, 1982, pp. 432-465.
    • Jarell C. Jackman and Carla M. Borden (eds.), The Muses Flee Hitler: Cultural Transfer and Adaptation, Washington (D.C.), Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983.
    • Anthony Heilbut, Exiles in Paradise: German Refugee Artists and Intellectuals in America from the 1930s to the Present, Boston, Beacon Press, 1983.
    • Elisa Signori, La Svizzera e i fuorusciti italiani. Aspetti e problemi dell’emigrazione politica 1943-1945, Milan, Franco Angeli, 1983.
    • Archivio centrale dello Stato, Roma, Centre d’études et de documentation sur l’émigration italienne, Paris, Centro studi Piero Gobetti, Torino, Istituto italiano di cultura, Paris, L’Italia in esilio. L’emigrazione italiana in Francia tra le due guerre, Rome, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, 1984.
    • Lewis A. Coser, Refugee Scholars in America: Their Impact and Their Experiences, New Haven-London, Yale University Press, 1984.
    • Maria Grazia Enardu, L’immigrazione illegale ebraica verso la Palestina e la politica estera italiana, 1945-1948, «Storia delle relazioni internazionali», 1986, pp. 147-164.
    • Dante Della Terza, Da Vienna a Baltimora. La diaspora degli intellettuali europei negli Stati Uniti d’America, Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1987.
    • Marcello Montagnana, I rifugiati italiani in Australia e il movimento antifascista «Italia libera» 1942-1946, «Notiziario dell’Istituto storico della Resistenza in Cuneo e provincia», 31, 1987, pp. 5-114.
    • Simonetta Tombaccini, Storia dei fuoriusciti italiani in Francia, Milan, Mursia, 1988.
    • Mario Toscano, L’emigrazione ebraica italiana dopo il 1938, «Storia contemporanea», 6, 1988, pp. 1287-1314.
    • Lore Terracini, Una inmigración muy particolar: 1938, los universitarios italianos en la Argentina, «Anuario del Instituto de estudios historicos y sociales», 4, 1989, pp. 335-369.
    • Mario Toscano, La porta di Sion. L’Italia e l’immigrazione clandestina ebraica in Palestina (1945-1946), Bologna, Il Mulino, 1990.
    • Barry Katz, The Accumulation of Thought: Transformations of the Refugee Scholar in America, «The Journal of Modern History», 63, 4, 1991, pp. 740-752.
    • Susanne Klingenstein, Jews in the American Academy, 1900-1940: The Dynamics of Intellectual Assimilation, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1991.
    • Renata Broggini, Terra d’asilo. I rifugiati italiani in Svizzera (1943-1945), Bologna, Il Mulino, 1993.
    • Claus-Dieter Kroh, Intellectuals in Exile: Refugee Scholars and the New School for Social Research, Amherst, Massachusetts University Press, 1993.
    • Catherine Epstein, A Past Renewed. A Catalog of German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the United States after 1933, «German Historical Institute», Cambridge-New York, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    • Klaus Voigt, Il rifugio precario. Gli esuli in Italia dal 1933 al 1945, 2 voll., Florence, La Nuova Italia, 1993.
    • Wilfred M. McClay, Historical Research on the Refugees Intellectuals, «International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society», 7, 1994, pp. 513-524.
    • Pierre Milza, Denis Peschanski (éd.), Exils et migrations. Italiens et Espagnols en France 1938-1946, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1994.
    • Pietro Rinaldo Fanesi, L’esilio antifascista e la comunità italiana in Argentina, in Vanni Blengino, Emilio Franzina e Adolfo Pepe (eds.), La riscoperta delle Americhe. Lavoratori e sindacato nell’emigrazione italiana in America Latina 1870-1970, Milano, Teti, 1994, pp. 115-131.
    • Nathan Kravetz (ed.), Displaced German Scholars: a Guide to Academics in Peril in Nazi Germany during the 1930s, S. Bernardino (CA), Borgo Press, 1994.
    • Sibylle Quack (ed.), Between Sorrow and Strength. Women Refugees of the Nazi Period, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
    • Mitchell Ash, Alfons G. Sollner, Forced Migration and Scientific Change. Emigré German-Speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    • Alfio Bernabei, Esuli ed emigrati italiani nel Regno Unito. 1920-1940, Milan, Mursia, 1997.
    • Renata Broggini, La frontiera della speranza. Gli ebrei dall’Italia verso la Svizzera 1943-45, Milan, Mondadori, 1998.
    • Eleonora Maria Smolensky, Vera Vigevani Jarach, Tante voci, una storia. Italiani ebrei in Argentina, 1938-1948, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1998.
    • João Fábio Bertonha, Sob a sombra de Mussolini. Os italianos de São Paulo e a luta contra o fascismo, 1919-1945, São Paulo, Annablume, 1999.
    • Reinhold Brinkmann, Christoph Wolff (eds.), Driven into Paradise. The Musical Migration from Nazi Germany to the United States, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1999.
    • Ian Wallace, German-Speaking Exiles in Great Britain, Amsterdam-Atlanta (GA), Rodopi, 1999.
    • Giuliana Gemelli (ed.), «The Unacceptables». American Foundations and the Refugee Scholars Between the Two Wars and After, Bern-New York-Brussels, Lang, 2000.
    • Jean Medawar, David Pyke, Hitler’s Gift. The True Story of the Scientists Expelled by the Nazi Regime, New York, Arcade, 2000.
    • Jeffrey Mehlman, Émigré New York. French Intellectuals in Wartime Manhattan, 1940-1944, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
    • Elisa Signori, Una «peregrinatio academica» in età contemporanea. Gli studenti ebrei stranieri nelle università italiane tra le due guerre, «Annali di storia delle università italiane», 4, 2000, pp. 139-162.
    • Lucio Sponza, Jewish Refugees from Fascist Italy to Britain, in Bernard D. Cooperman, Barbara Garvin (eds.), The Jews of Italy, Bethesda, University Press of Maryland, 2000, pp. 425-441.
    • Hartmut Lehmann, James J. Sheehan, An Interrupted Past: German-Speaking Refugee Historians in the United States after 1933, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
    • Mark M. Anderson, The Silent Generation? Jewish Refugee Students, Germanistik, and Columbia University, «The Germanic Review», 78, 2003, pp. 20-38.
    • Arturo Marzano, Una terra per rinascere. Gli ebrei italiani e l’immigrazione in Palestina prima della guerra (1920-1940), Milan, Marietti, 2003.
    • Guri Schwarz, Ritrovare se stessi. Gli ebrei nell’Italia postfascista, Rome-Bari, Laterza, 2004.
    • Eva Telkes-Klein, L’Université hébraïque de Jérusalem à travers ses acteurs. La première génération de professeurs (1925-1948), Paris, Honoré Champion, 2004.
    • Raffaella Castagnola, Fabrizio Panzera, Massimiliano Spiga (eds.), Spiriti liberi in Svizzera: la presenza di fuorusciti italiani nella Confederazione negli anni del fascismo e del nazismo (1922-1945), Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Ascona, Centro Monte Verità, Milano, Università degli studi, 8-9 novembre 2004, Florence, Cesati, 2006.
    • Marjorie Lamberti, The Reception of Refugee Scholars from Nazi Germany in America: Philanthropy and Social Change in Higher Education, «Jewish Social Studies», 12, 3, 2006, pp. 157-192.
    • Annarosa Campagnano, Sema Petragnani, A milenária presença de judeus na Itália: resgatando a memória da imigração de judeus italianos no Brasil (1938-1941), São Paulo, Atheneu Ed., 2007.
    • Marjorie Lamberti, German Antifascist Refugees in America and the Public Debate on «What Should be Done with Germany after Hitler», 1941-1945, «Central European History», 40, 2007, pp. 279-305.
    • Edoardo Tortarolo, Objectivity and Opposition. Some Émigré Historians in the 1930s and Early 1940s, in Q. Edward Wang, Franz L. Fillafer (eds.), The Many Faces of Clio: Cross-Cultural Approaches to Historiography, Oxford, Berghahn Books, 2007, ch. 4.
    • Alessandra Gissi, L’emigrazione dei maestri. Gli scienziati italiani negli Stati Uniti tra le due guerre, in Angiolina Arru, Daniela L.V. Caglioti, Franco Ramella (eds.), Donne e uomini migranti. Storie e geografie tra breve e lunga distanza, Roma, Donzelli, 2008, pp. 145-161.
    • Tibor Frank, Double Exile: Migrations of Jewish-Hungarian Professionals through Germany to the United States, 1919-1945, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2008.
    • Pier Giorgio Zunino (ed.), Università e accademie negli anni del fascismo e del nazismo, Firenze, Olschki, 2008.
    • Dorothy L. Crawford, A Windfall of Musicians: Hitler’s Emigres and Exiles in Southern California, New Haven, Bronfman Foundation & Yale College, 2009.
    • Deborah Dework, Robert Jan Van Pelt, Flight from the Reich – Refugee Jews, 1933-1946, New York, Norton, 2009.
    • Renato Camurri (ed.), L’Europa in esilio. La migrazione degli intellettuali verso le Americhe tra le due guerre, «Memoria e Ricerca», 31, 2009, monographic issue.
    • Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany: Individual Fates and Global Impact, Princeton (N.J.), Princeton University Press, 2009.
    • Richard Bodek, Simon Lewis (eds.), The Fruits of Exile: Central European Intellectual Immigration to America in the Age of Fascism, Columbia (SC), University Press of South Carolina, 2010.
    • Annalisa Capristo, «Fare fagotto»: l’emigrazione intellettuale dall’Italia fascista dopo il 1938, «La Rassegna mensile di Israel», 76, 3, 2010, pp. 177-200.
    • Alessandra Gissi, Italian Scientific Migration to the United States of America after 1938 Racial Laws, «Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften (OeZG)», 3, 2010, pp. 100-118.
    • Mussolini’s Gifts. Exiles from Fascist Italy, «Journal of Modern Italian Studies», 15, 5, 2010, monographic issue.
    • Raffaella Simili, In fuga: emigrare all’estero, in Ead, Sotto falso nome. Scienziate italiane ebree (1938-1945), Bologna, Pendagron, 2010, pp. 41-62.
    • Frank W. Stahnisch, German-Speaking Émigré Neuroscientists in North America after 1933: Critical Reflections on Emigration-Induced Scientific Change, «Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaften», 21, 2010, pp. 36-68.
    • Anna Rosa Campagnano, In Difesa Della Razza: Os Judeus Italianos Refugiados do Fascismo e o Antissemitismo do Governo Vargas, 1938-1945, São Paulo, EDUSP; FAPESP, 2011.
    • Rolf Nossum, Emigration of Mathemathicians from Outside the German Speaking Academia after 1933 Supported by the SPSL, «Historia mathematica», 39, 1, 2012, pp. 84-104.
    • Gianna Pontecorboli, America. Nuova terra promessa. Storia di ebrei in fuga dal fascismo, Milan, Brioschi, 2013.
    • S. Garzonio, B. Sulpasso (eds.), Emigrazione russa in Italia. Periodici, editoria e archivi (1900-1940), Salerno, Collana di Europa Orientalis, 2015.
    • Alessandra Gissi, Migranti, esiliate o rifugiate? Le italiane nell’«intellectual wave» (Italia - Stati Uniti, 1938-1943), in Stefano Luconi, Mario Varricchio (eds.), Lontane da casa. Donne italiane e diaspora globale dall’inizio del Novecento ad oggi, Turin, Accademia University Press, Centro Altreitalie, 2015, pp. 97-113.
    • Agnes Katalin Kelemen, The Semaphore of Mobility: Hungarian Jewish Press and Peregrination to Fascist Italy, «Annali di storia delle Università Italiane», 2, 2015, pp. 41-53.
    • John Tedeschi with Anne C. Tedeschi, Italian Jews Under fascism 1938-1945. A Personal and Historical Narrative, Madison, Parallel Press - University of Wisconsin - Madison Libraries, 2015.
    • Patrizia Guarnieri, Italian Psychology and Jewish Emigration under Fascism. From Florence to Jerusalem and New York, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
    • Utz Maas, Sprachforschung in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Verfolgung, Vertreibung, Politisierung und die inhaltliche Neuausrichtung der Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin, De Gruyter, 2016.
    • Giovanni Montroni, La continuità necessaria. Università e professori dal fascismo alla Repubblica, Florence, Le Monnier, 2016.
    • Sally Crawford, Katharina Ulmschnieder, Jaś Elsner, Ark of Civilization. Refugee Scholars and Oxford University, 1930 – 1945, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018.
    • Shira Klein, Imagining Italy: Italian Jewish Refugees in the United States, in Ead., Italy’s Jews from Emancipation to Fascism, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2018, pp. 131-155.
    • Giuseppina Larocca, L’aquila bicipite e il tenero Iris. Tracce russe a Firenze nel primo Novecento (1899-1939), Pisa, Pisa University Press, 2018.
    • Patrizia Guarnieri (ed.), L’emigrazione intellettuale dall’Italia fascista. Studenti e studiosi ebrei dell’Università di Firenze in fuga all’estero, Florence, Firenze University Press, 2019.
    • Francesca Cavarocchi, Provenienze e destini degli studenti ebrei stranieri iscritti all'Università di Firenze nel 1938, in Patrizia Guarnieri (ed.), L’emigrazione intellettuale dall'Italia fascista. Studenti e studiosi ebrei dell’Università di Firenze in fuga all'estero, Florence, Firenze University Press, 2019, pp. 21-40.
    • Patrizia Guarnieri, Introduzione: 1938-2018 non solo un anniversario, in Ead. (ed.), L’emigrazione intellettuale dall'Italia fascista. Studenti e studiosi ebrei dell’Università di Firenze in fuga all'estero, Florence, Firenze University Press, 2019, pp. 3-14.
    • Anna Teicher, Da discriminati a rifugiati: gli studiosi ebrei stranieri dell'ateneo di Firenze, in Patrizia Guarnieri (ed.), L’emigrazione intellettuale dall'Italia fascista. Studenti e studiosi ebrei dell’Università di Firenze in fuga all'estero, Florence, Firenze University Press, 2019, pp. 41-56.
    • Simone Turchetti, Tracce e transiti: vite ed esperienze di studio dei fisici di Firenze durante e dopo il fascismo, in Patrizia Guarnieri (ed.), L’emigrazione intellettuale dall'Italia fascista. Studenti e studiosi ebrei dell’Università di Firenze in fuga all'estero, Florence, Firenze University Press, 2019, pp. 57-72.
    • Ludger Pries, Pablo Yankelevich, European and Latin American Social Scientists as Refugees, Émigrés and Return-Migrants, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
    • Federica Rocchi, "Ich blieb in Florenz... und ich habe viel erlebt" Intellettuali ebrei-tedeschi nella Firenze degli anni Trenta, «Lea - Lingue e letterature d'Oriente e d'Occidente», 10, 2021, pp. 279-297.
    • Patrizia Guarnieri, Invisibili e meritevoli studiose. Il valore aggiunto nell’emigrazione qualificata dall’Italia fascista, «Annali di storia delle Università Italiane», 26, 2022, pp. 61-83.