Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

    About us


    Updated access analytics
    (source Google Analytics) on the Firenze University Press website
    Map of the accesses to the portal Intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy, updated to 13 April 2022:



    The portal has been included in the Italian American Periodicals at the Library of Congress, a research guide published online in March 2022, on the webpage Databases and External Websites.

    «Award to Patrizia Guarnieri from the Columbia Seminar for Studies in Modern Italy. The professor in Contemporary History was elected Associate Member of the University Seminars following the presentation of the portal "Intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy".»
    Unifi Magazine, 31 May 2022


    «The portal focuses on intellectual migration from Italy during fascism, and is the only one of its kind to focus on this heretofore-overlooked topic. A work-in-progress, the portal includes hundreds of names and stories of displacement, along with photographs, maps, and timelines of mobility of these expatriated scholars as they sought jobs and freedom from the fascist regime.»
    European University Institute, «The flight of intellectuals from fascism: the case of Ernesto Rossi», 19 May 2022.



    «The portal considers itself a work in progress, and the research team looks forward to receiving new material and updates over time that will aid them in the mission of bringing these forgotten stories to public attention.»

    Diana Castelnuovo-Tedesco, «New light on intellectuals who fled Fascist Italy», 19 April 2022. Also in the Italian edition.


    «The portal [...] is sponsored by the New York University Public Library and by the John Calandra Italian American Institute, Queens College, CUNY. Moreover, a group of translators, coordinated by professor Francesca Parmeggiani, are students at Fordham University. Among the most numerous visitors of the portal, in fact, are Americans, who are second only to Italians. [...] On the website the map  of accesses really gives the idea of how far the portal has gone, reaching people in all five continents.»

    «
    Intellettuali perseguitati dal fascismo, nuovi tasselli per la Memoria», Moked, 25 April 2022. And in the international edition of «Pagine ebraiche».


    «The portal https://
    intellettualinfuga.fupress.com represents a significant open-access work in progress for the study of the intellectual emigration from fascism, a phenomenon largely unknown both in its size and in its complexity. At the heart of the project, [...] is the displaced scholar, the "intellectual"  defined in the widest sense of the word [...]. »
    Review by David Bernardini on «Rivista Storica del Socialismo», 1, 2022, pp. 154-155.


    «There are intellectual women, like Renata Calabresi, libera docente in Psychology, disbarred from Italian universities as a result of the Antisemitic laws. An Anti-fascist she'll find a new job in the United States. An emblematic story, told by the online portal of the University of Florence intellettualinfuga.fupress.com»
    Presentation of the MEI, Italian museum emigration, during the event «Donne e culture in movimento: l'emigrazione femminile di ieri e di oggi», 3 March 2022



    «Despite the fact we sometimes pretend that this was not the case, the Italian braindrain is a phenomenon with a long history. [...] Less known are the minute stories of many others [who left Italy], of their relations with the cultural and scientific communities of their host countries, of the cultural, social, and family's networks involved, of their rough routes, and of the outcomes of their travels. For years, the project "Intelelctuals displaced form Fascist Italy", led by the historian Patrizia Guarnieri at the University of Florence had examined these issues»
    Ferdinando Fasce,
    «Cervelli in fuga dall'Italia fascista», «Il Secolo XIX», 14 February 2022

    «[...] the extensive research had the institution’s patronage – The New York Public Library, The Council for At-Risk Academics of London and the Central Archives for the History of Jewish People, Jerusalem –, and the contribution of individuals and archives from all around the world, which allowed Guarnieri to compare data and consult registers to fill, for the first time, the missing pieces to the puzzle of lives after exile. The investigation revealed the ability of the scientific world to build solidarity networks, but also to be able to exploit the opportunity to recruit high-quality, low-cost workforce for American institutions, which until before the war did not boast the same prestige of the European ones»
    Review by Benedetta Campanile in «Physis», 1-2, 2021


    «Intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy» playlist on the Youtube channel of the University of Florence

    «Il Portale», Patrizia Guarnieri presents the project «Intellectuals displaced from fascist Italy». Watch the video
    «Silences, historical research, and memory», Interview with Noemi Di Segni, chair of the Unione delle comunità ebraiche italiane. Watch the video
    «Interview with Alberto Boralevi», descendant of the Meggiboschi family. Watch the video
    «Interview with Claire Pelletier», descendant of the Shapira family. Watch the video
    27 January 2022


    «Giorno della Memoria 2022 - Smarginando», on the occasion of the Day of Remembrance, the Festival of the Fondazione Museo Nazionale dell’Emigrazione Italiana (National Museum of the Italian Emigration) hosted the presentation of the portal: Intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy.
    Watch the video, 27 January 2022


    «
    Fascism and the intellectuals' escape, the stories that fill the gap»
    «Le voci della Shoah» in «Pagina 3» by Silvia Bencivelli, Radio 3, 27 January 2022
    Listen to the podcast


    «...the project [...] let to the creation of the homonymous website: it found some 400 names of students and scholars who left Italy, whose lives had been reconstructed with a detailed research work and with the help of their relatives»
    Interview on Controradio, by Chiara Brilli, 27 January 2022
    Listen to the podcast



    «Day of Remebrance: the contributon of the University to the project 'intellettuali in fuga dall’Italia fascista'»
    Emiliaromagnanews24, 26 January 2022



    «‘What did they do afterwards?’ is the question that drives this extraordinary work in progress made of articles, maps, timelines, and a collection of over a thousand pictures, courtesy of public and private archives. An evergrowing building site, looking for 'lives on the move' that draw mobility trajectories, often quite complex, 'which are not merely geographical, but extended to qualifications and statuses, professional and scientific environments, relationships, ideas, and behaviours'»
    Adam Smulevich, Moked, 26 January 2022


    «
    The website serves as a catalog of past memories; it resuscitates the stories of those who were persecuted and too easily forgotten while giving them back a voice on a public platform accessible to all. This historical clearinghouse is an ongoing project, routinely updated to reflect its increasing data collection and progressively building a more fleshed-out narrative as it evolves»
    «Calandra Institute’s Message in Honor of International Holocaust Remembrance Day - The Institute has joined Italian historian Patrizia Guarnieri and her team in gathering data on Italian Jewish individuals who fled Fascism and Nazism» Lara Dreux, La voce di New York, 26 January 2022



    «Day of Remebrance: the contributon of the University to the project 'intellettuali in fuga dall’Italia fascista'»
    «Gazzetta di Parma», 26 January 2022


    «The information gathered 'come from all manner of sources; they are conditioned by them, as it is always the case, but with a further issue: communications were in different languages than the one spoken by those who fled, transmitted in English or German, seldom in Italian, and often translated approximately by those who wrote, or read, or met those people, and therefore communication was difficult'. The wave of intellectuals who crossed the borders came five years after their German colleagues and met a job market already saturated and unwilling to absorb more foreigners, especially in the case of Jews and Italians, and even less women»
    «Intellettuali in fuga» Vaccarinews, 26 January 2022


    «Day of Remebrance: the contributon of the University to the project 'intellettuali in fuga dall’Italia fascista'»

    Parmadaily.it, 25 January 2022



    «Day of Remebrance: the contributon of the University to the project 'intellettuali in fuga dall’Italia fascista'»

    9Colonne, 25 January 2022


    «Guarnieri and her team of researchers effectively synthesize vast amounts of information, uncovered in archival research both in Italy and abroad, into a highly accessible and readable digital resource. [...] the site’s status as a work in progress is a feature and not a flaw for it reminds us that the history that it seeks to preserve cannot be contained in a predetermined set of schemas; it is a history that will continue to grow in breadth and depth with the completion of further research over time»
    Review by Joseph Tumolo in «Italica», 2, 202


    «...the portal helps to remember that the so-called brain drain is not only a current issue but has an antecedent in the years of Fascism, when the regime was guilty of the expatriation of scholars of the highest level, many of whom were destined never to return. By more actively encouraging their return home, republican Italy could have benefited from the scientific experiences enriched through expatriation, but it did not commit itself in this sense and made other choices, short-sighted choices repeated on other occasions»
    Review by Silvana Patriarca in «Il mestiere di storico», 2, 2020


    «Dialoghi II - Intellettuali in fuga dall'Italia fascista (Dialogues II - Intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy»
    Dialogue between Marta Baiardi and Patrizia Guarnieri as part of the refresher course for teachers organised by the Fondazione Museo della deportazione e Resistenza of Prato, 4 November 2021


    Notice in Sinergie di Scuola, 15 September 2021


    «Their stories, compelling and reconstructed from Italian and foreign archives, speak of departures and arrivals, of the difficulties in obtaining the necessary documents and of rebuilding a life elsewhere by accepting precarious jobs, of the delicate adaptation to other environments, other languages, new cultures»
    Review in «Indireinforma», 9 September 2021


    «Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy. Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons/Intellettuali in fuga dall’Italia fascista. Migranti, esuli e rifugiati per motivi politici e razziali, by Patrizia Guarnieri»
    Review by Alice Gussoni in «Italian Culture», 39, 2021


    «It is the work in progress of a courageously ambitious project that aims at a prosopography of talents largely lost to 20th century Italy, and intends to reconstruct at 360 degrees a brain drain from the 1920s to the Second World War»
    Review by Elisa Signori, «Annali di Storia delle università italiane», January-June 2021


    «The intellectual emigration from fascist Italy. Jewish students and scholars of the University of Florence escaping abroad»
    Review by Simona Salustri, «Annali di Storia delle università italiane», January-June 2021


    Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy on Semantic Scholar


    Profile of the project in Regione Toscana, Storia e memoria del '900, May 2021


    «Israel: the Comites for the reconstruction of the stories of "intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy"»
    Gabriella Indaco on italianiallestero.tv


    «An in-depth study and a portal on the consequences of the actions of Fascist politics during the Ventennio»
    Polo archivistico dell'Emilia Romagna, 29 April 2021


    «Stories of "brains on the move", intellectuals, scientists, students, Italians and foreigners, mainly but not only Jews, forced to flee from Fascist Italy and Europe in flames, invaded by the Nazis. Historian Patrizia Guarnieri has reconstructed their paths, recounting them one by one, from A to Z, and making them available on a portal, as part of a University of Florence project»
    Lucia Correale and Alessandra di Marco, Intellettuali in fuga, with an interview with Patrizia Guarnieri
    Sorgente di vita. Rubrica di vita e cultura ebraica, in collaboration with the Unione delle Comunità ebraiche italiane, Rai2, 25 April 2021 (replays 27 April 1.30 am, 3 May 1.00 am)


    «A long list of public and private Italian archives consulted to reconstruct how ordinary careers are suddenly interrupted (due to suspension from service, expulsion from the professional register or simply silence) and resumed elsewhere, in distant countries, amidst a thousand difficulties, efforts, and a high dose of tenacity»
    Roberta Moro, Il Mondo degli archivi, 23 April 2021


    «We have lost an enormous heritage represented by the many excellences that have been forced to seek their fortune outside Italy. Many people know the story of Enrico Fermi, who fled to America after winning the Nobel Prize because his wife was Jewish. The stories of many other brains, on the other hand, have remained unknown»
    Roberto Bosio, Intellettuali in fuga dal fascismo: Renata Calabresi, Associazione docenti Articolo33, 1 April 2021


    «Antidotes to discrimination, Intellectuals fleeing fascism»
    Adattamenti, Radio Zainet, podcast from 72' 41" to 91' 30"


    «
    It is the first attempt at a comprehensive reconstruction of the "brain drain" caused by Fascism: a loss of resources often denied by the regime, and still unknown. The losses were rapidly replaced, and the expulsions from work and study had grievous repercussions on people and families, on the Italian culture, and on everyone's future. These stories, however, also tell of resources, determination, and talent. "Intellectuals displaced" is a work in progress on the mobility of scholars, students, and professionals, with an open list of some 400 names, [...]. The research is sponsored by the University of Florence and by the Region Tuscany, but also by important international institutions. »

    Gabriella Indaco, Israele: il comites per la ricostruzione delle storie degli "intellettuali in fuga" on
    www.italianiallestero.tv, 17 March 2021.


    «Lives to be rebuilt»

    Clip from TG1 newscast, reporter Caterina Doglio, with an interview with Patrizia Guarnieri, Rai 1, 8.00 pm, 13 March 2021


    «Online resource in English & Italian from Patrizia Guarnieri, "Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy: Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons"»
    Tweet of John Calandra Italian American Institute, New York @CalandraItal


    «We often talk about "brain drain" to define the emigration of the young from our country to others, in search of opportunities and/or work. However, the Prato Soroptimist international club decided to remember [...] another exodus, surely less known or studied: that of the women who emigrated because of the racial laws during the Fascist regime [...]. The University of Florence filled this gap, starting from the late 1980s, by collecting documents concerning this phenomenon (not exclusively in its gender component) and, in 2019, it launched a portal specifically dedicated to the intellectuals displaced from Fascist Italy.»
    Annamaria Vicini, «Anni trenta. Cervelli femminili in fuga», 20 February 2021



    «The purpose of this ambitious work is not to reconstruct the intellectual biographies of Italian scholars who have made careers abroad, but to tell the stories of those moving, often troubled lives of so many men and women who, with determination and tenacity, did not lose heart when faced with the need to completely reinvent their existence»
    Federica D'Auria, Il Bo Live, Università di Padova, 16 February 2021


    «​Four Scholars who Escaped from Fascist Italy​»
    by Silvia Bencivelli, the story of Giacomo Ancona presented on «Vite che non sono la tua» (Lives that are not yours)
    Rai Radio 3, 6 February 2021
    Listen to the podcast


    «​Four Scholars who Escaped from Fascist Italy​» by Silvia Bencivelli, the story of Giselda Biancalani presented on «Vite che non sono la tua» (Lives that are not yours)
    Rai Radio 3, 7 February 2021
    Listen to the podcast


    «​Four Scholars who Escaped from Fascist Italy​» by Silvia Bencivelli, the story of Vinicio Barocas presented on «Vite che non sono la tua» (Lives that are not yours)
    Rai Radio 3, 13 February 2021
    Listen to the podcast


    «​Four Scholars who Escaped from Fascist Italy​» by Silvia Bencivelli, the story of Renata Calabresi presented on «Vite che non sono la tua» (Lives that are not yours)
    Rai Radio 3, 14 February 2021
    Listen to the podcast


    «The Archive of Forgotten Histories. Unknown or Little Known Stories of Researchers, Artists, and Those at Risk who Escaped from Italy»
    Rai Radio 3 scienza, 5 February 2021
    Listen to the podcast


    «Escaping Fascism. The policies of the fascist regime and racial persecution led to a brain drain that is still widely unknown. Now there is a project to reconstruct its history»
    Silvia Bencivelli, ​«Le Scienze», February 2021


    «The Thirties. Female brains on the move»

    Annamaria Vicini, Vitaminevaganti, February 2021


    «Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy»
    «Il Sole 24 ore», Domenicale, 7 February 2021


    «Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy. The Research, Website, and Mission. Documenting and reconstructing the lives of displaced intellectuals, step by step, with a historiographical ambition to expand horizons. A new methodology employed with a civil commitment to remember [...] a massive endeavour»
    Lea Campos Boralevi, «​Toscana ebraica», January-February 2021


    «An unmistakably original element of the website’s content is that of not only condemning the injustices inflicted upon the victims – which are evident to whoever is not in bad faith or whoever has not been completely eclipsed by the ideologically blind vision of Fascism – but that of contextually demonstrating the damage Fascism did to Italy; by depriving it of such intelligence that could have enriched many fields of knowledge»
    Paolo F. Peloso, ​Psychiatry online Italia, 30 January 2021


    «​The Archive of Italy’s Brain Drain from Fascist Italy. The historian Patrizia Guarnieri reconstructs the journeys of scholars and scientists, many of which were Jewish: human tragedies and enormous damage for our research»
    Silvia Bencivelli, ​«Il Venerdì di Repubblica», 29 January 2021


    «​When the human capital flight is that of women​»
    «La Nazione», 27 January 2021


    «​Aurelia and other stories we should never forget​»
    Paolo Di Stefano,«Il Corriere della sera», 25 January 2021


    «Leave Fascist Italy for a better world​»
    Marco Romano, ​Toscana Novecento


    «Fascinating new website with support from @UNI_FIRENZE on ‘Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy’, drawing in part on Cara archives at the Bodleian. Work in progress, but lots to read»
    Tweet​  from Cara - the Council for At-Risk Academics @CARA1933


    «Recovering the Lives of scholars who fled Fascism. The National Library of Israel's Central Archives for the History of Jewish People is taking part in a groundbreaking new project being led by the University of Florence. As this period of isolation has ushered in a new understanding of what it means to work and collaborate remotely, the branch of academia known as the “digital humanities” is now more necessary than ever [...] This is exactly the sort of enterprise that Intellettuali in Fuga (Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy), headed by Professor Patrizia Guarnieri of the University of Florence, accomplishes»
    National Library of Israel's Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People, 20 July 2020


    An article on Annemarie Curth Goldberg and her husband Erich Goldberg, who fled from Germany to Italy, and then to Singapore
    The Muntok Memorial Peace Museum, Muntok, Bangka Island, Indonesia


    «Lives to Reconstruct, Lives on the Move​»
    Alberto Cavaglion, ​«The University without the Jews​»
    Sergio Della Pergola, «Emigration, Seven Points to Reflect upon​»
    Daniela Gross, «The sorrowful diaspora of the Jewish students and scholars»
    Pagine ebraiche, 7 July 2020


    «Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy. A New Website on Migrants, Exiles, and Refugees​»
    Francesca Cavarocchi, «HistoriaMagistra», 32, 2020


    Interview on Radio Città del Capo, 28 January 2020
    Listen to the podcast


    «Astronomies and Philologies. The Great Minds who Escaped the Racial Laws. It is true that Italy was, and is, a land of poor emigrants without culture. But today we know that there was a different kind of Italian emigration: that of the so-called ‘brain drain’. It is a whole other phenomenon that deserves to be studied»
    Paolo Di Stefano, ​«Corriere della sera», 27 January 2020


    «Finally some good news from the Internet: the creation of a new website that is dedicated to the exile of Jewish scholars after 1938»
    Alberto Cavaglion, ​Moked, 28 November 2019


    «Not just an extremely complex research, compilation, or enormous archivization. It is the mirror of reality, of a ‘qualified mobility’ that began in the thirties and which reverberates to the present day. It shows us the knowledge of back then, today, and the future; the knowledge that we have lost due to the horror and stupidity of racism​»
    Edoardo Semmola, ​«Corriere Fiorentino», 24 October 2019


    «Generation Dissention. The Great Minds that Escaped Fascist Italy»
    Maria Cristina Carratù, «Repubblica Firenze», 24 October 2019


    Interview on Radio radicale, 24 October 2019
    Listen to the​ podcast


    IF «reconstructs the personal and familial stories of these lives in exile with a rich documentation made of images, maps, infographic, and bibliography, along with the support networks that supported the various individuals who escaped»
    «Paese Sera», 23 October 2019


    Interview on Controradio, 23 October 2019
    Listen to the podcast


    «The objective of this project is to direct attention to the emigration of scholars during the Fascist era, which has been little studied up until now, whether in the numbers or events of their biographies, in their journeys or professional and academic achievements»
    Biblioteca di filosofia, 31 May 2019


    «A recognition of unearthing a buried history that is the intellectual emigration from Italy; still little has been done whether it is the numbers, journeys, or academic or professional achievements»
    Shalom, 20 December 2018