Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Elia Samuele Artom (1887-1965)

Other headings: Elia Samuel

Turin 15 June 1887 - Rome 25 February 1965

Lives on the move

Emigrant family members

  • Davide Artom (Turin, July 13,1918-Petah Tikva, Mandatory Palestine, November 23, 1938), son: left Rome for Palestine in December of 1938, where he settled on Rodges kibbutz as a farmer. Less than a year later at age 21, he died of meningitis at the Beilinson Hospital of Petah Tikva. He never returned to Italy.
  • Emanuele Menachem Artom (Turin, August 29, 1916-Jerusalem, July 19, 1992), son: graduated in Letters, rabbi of Perugia from 1937-1938, he emigrated on December 14, 1939 as a student of the Hebrew University. He was a farmer for a brief period before becoming a school teacher. He married Elena Lea Rossi in 1942 in Jerusalem. He held several positions in government from 1945 to 1973. He spent long periods in Italy, first as chief rabbi of Venice (1973-1976) and later of Turin (1985-1987), and finally as a professor at the Collegio rabbinico italiano. He did not return to Italy to resettle, and rather remained in Israel until his death in 1992. 
  • Meir Artom (Tripoli, Libya (not Florence, as often reported), January 6, 1921 – Hibbat Tzion, Mandatory Palestine, October 21, 1947), son: student, farmer, and lithographer, he emigrated to Jerusalem in March of 1945. On June 6, 1947 he married Miriam Campagnano (Alessandria, Egypt, June 25, 1922), a nurse. He died at 26 years of age. He never returned to Italy. 
  • Ruben Artom (Florence, March 8, 1928–Motza, Mandatory Palestine, April 5, 1948), son: in September of 1939, at 11 years old, he emigrated with his father to Jerusalem where he studied at the agricultural school Mikveh Israel. He died at 31 years of age in the battle of Motza during the Arab-Israeli War. He never returned to Italy. 
  • Elena Lea Rossi (Ancona, March 18, 1920), daughter in law: unable to enroll at the university as a consequence of the racial laws, she emigrated in 1939 with her family to Mandatory Palestine, where she met and in 1942 married Emanuele Menachem Artom. She published important historical and genealogical research on the Artom and De’ Rossi families. 
  • Umberto Cassuto (Florence, September 16, 1883–Jerusalem, December 18, 1951), brother in law (brother of Giulia Cassuto Artom, died January 11, 1936): university professor in Florence, then in Rome, emigrated with his wife and two children to Jerusalem in 1939, where he had a part-time job as a biblical studies professor at the Hebrew University and where he settled since October 1940. In 1945, he was non reintegrated, but only re-admitted in a supernumerary post, to the faculty at the Università di Roma.  He did not return to Italy.
  • Bice Corcos Cassuto (Livorno September 18, 1888–Kevutzat Yavne, Israel November 1969), sister in law: wife of Umberto, when she was 51 she emigrated with her husband and two daughters to Palestine on June 5, 1939. Like her husband, she never returned to Italy. 
  • Milka Salzmann née Cassuto (Florence September 23, 1908–Jerusalem July 21, 1993), niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, teacher, emigrated with her parents and sister to Palestine on June 5, 1939. She never returned to Italy. 
  • Lea Rocca née Cassuto (Florence December 23, 1911–Jerusalem May 9, 2006) niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, teacher, emigrated with her parents and sister to Palestine on June 5, 1939. She never returned to Italy. 
  • Hulda Cassuto Campagnano (Florence January 17, 1914–Kevutzat Yavne, Israel September 17, 1992) niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, emigrated to Palestine with her own children and nieces and parents of Anna di Gioacchino Cassuto on March 22, 1945. She never returned to Italy.

Aid organisations

  • Irgun ‘Ole Italia

References

  • Harry Torczyner (1886-1973, then Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai), biblical studies professor at the Hebrew University and first president of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
  • Moshe Zvi Segal (1876-1968), biblical studies professor at Hebrew University.
  • Hanoch Albeck (1890-1972), Talmudic scholar at Hebrew University.
  • Hiram Pflaum (1900-1962), Romance Languages professor at Hebrew University.
  • Simcha Assaf (1889-1953), professor of Talmudic literature at Hebrew University, then lecturer, and member of the Supreme Court.
  • Joseph Klausner (1874-1958), historian and linguist, professor at the Hebrew University, Zionist, presidential candidate in the 1949 elections against Chaim Weitzmann, great uncle of the writer Amos Oz.
  • Umberto Cassuto (1883-1951), biblical studies professor at Hebrew University.
  • Abraham Kahana (1874-1946), teacher and Jewish studies scholar. 
  • Abraham H. Fränkel (1891-1965), mathematician and lecturer at Hebrew University.
  • Ben-Tzion Meir Hai Uziel (1880-1953), Chief rabbi of Mandatory Palestine, then of Israel. 
  • David Prato (1882-1951), rabbi
  • Avraham Elmalih (1885-1967), giornalist, zionist, then representative in Israeli parliament.
  • Enzo Bonaventura (1891-1948), professor of psychology at Hebrew University.

Support network

  • Esther Berliner, offered Meir temporary housing in Tel Aviv (Rechov Yarkon, 52) since October 15, 1939.
  • Hiram Pflaum (1900-1962), professor of Romance Languages at Hebrew University, suggested Meir to the lecturer Abraham H. Fränkel for a position as an Italian professor. 
  • Harry Torczyner (1886-1973), then Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai, professor of biblical studies at Hebrew University and first president of the Academy of the Hebrew Language, put Artom in contact with Eliezer Rigen,   who introduced him to Yaakov Sh. Engel, the superintendent of “Mizrachi”,  for a teaching position. 
  • David Prato (1882-1951) rabbi, intervened at the directorate of the agricultural school Mikve Israel to reduce school fees for Meir Artom
  • Moshe Auerbach (1881-1976), rabbi, president of the school of Petah Tikva, supported Meir’s request to teach at the “Moria” high school in Tel Aviv. 
  • Enzo Sereni, Zionist, volunteer for the intelligence department of the British army during the Second World War, gave 5000 Italian lire to Meir Artom in Sicily (May 1944). Attempted but failed to acquire immigration certificates for Artom.  

Movements

1887Turin

Birth and Education

  • Student
1908Florence

Rabbinical Studies and Instructor

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano
  • Student,Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1912Ferrara

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1913Turin

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1915Belluno

Military Rabbi during World War I

1915Turin

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1920Tripoli

Chief Rabbi

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Others
1924Alexandria

Chief Rabbi

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Others
1926Florence

Chief Rabbi and Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1933Tel Aviv

Italian Professor on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1934Florence

Chief Rabbi and Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1935Rome

Director of the Collegio rabbinico italiano

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1937Florence

Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1938Rome

Director of the Collegio rabbinico italiano

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano; Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1939Tel Aviv

  • Unemployed
1939Gerusalemme

Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment,No information
  • Teacher,Others
1965Rome