Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Umberto (Moshe David) Cassuto (1883-1951)

Florence 16 September 1883 - Jerusalem 18 December 1951

Lives on the move

Emigrant family members

- Bice Corcos Cassuto (Livorno 18 September 1888 - Kevutzat Yavne, Israel, November 1969), wife: emigrated at the age of 51 with her husband and her two daughters to Palestine on 5 June 1939; never returned to Italy.
- Milka Cassuto then married Salzman in 1951 (Florence 23 September 1908 - Jerusalem 21 July 1993), daughter: teacher, emigrated to Palestine on 5 June 1939 with her parents and one sister; never returned to Italy.
- Lea Cassuto then married Rocca (Florence 23 December 1911 – Jerusalem 9 May 2006), daughter: teacher, emigrated to Palestine on 5 June 1939 with her parents and one sister; never returned to Italy.
- Hulda Cassuto Campagnano (Florence 17 January 1914 - Kevutzat Yavne, Israel, 17 September 1992), daughter: emigrated to Palestine on 22 March 1945 with her children and grandchildren and with Anna Di Gioacchino Cassuto's parents; never returned to Italy.
- Anna Di Gioacchino Cassuto (Ancona 20 January 1911 - Jerusalem 13 April 1948), daughter-in-law: widow of Nathan Cassuto, survived Auschwitz, returned to Florence; emigrated in November 1945 to Palestine to join her children; killed in the attack on a convoy going to the Hadassa Hospital.
- Susanna (Florence 8 May 1936), David Moshe (Florence 27 September 1937) and Daniel Saul Elia Cassuto (Milan 26 June 1941), grandchildren, children of Nathan Cassuto and Anna Di Gioacchino. They left from Taranto for Palestine on 22 March 1945 with their cousins Campagnano, their aunt Hulda, daughter of Umberto, and their maternal grandparents. David Cassuto, in particular, became an architect and was long-time vice-mayor of Jerusalem. They never returned to Italy.
- Sara Campagnano, then married Baruchi (Florence 1940), granddaughter: daughter of Hulda Cassuto and Saul Campagnano, emigrated to Palestine on 22 March 1945 at the age of 5 with her mother, brother, Cassuto cousins and their maternal grandparents. She never returned to Italy.
- Ruben Campagnano (Milan 5 January 1942), grandson: son of Hulda Cassuto and Saul Campagnano, emigrated to Palestine on 22 March 1945 at the age of 3 with his mother, his sister Sara, Cassuto cousins and their maternal grandparents. He had a military career, then became a teacher, and is today an antique book restorer. He never returned to Italy.
- Dario Di Gioacchino (1874-1956), Emma Della Pergola (Florence 9 May 1874 - 1956), the children's parents-in-law, Anna’s parents: emigrated to Palestine on 22 March 1945 on the ship The Princess Kathleen together with his children and Anna’s children, their grandchildren, and Hulda Cassuto. They returned to Italy.
- Elia Samuel Artom (Turin 15 June 1887 - Rome 25 February 1965), brother-in-law, widow of Giulia Cassuto (Florence 16 August 1887 - Rome 11 January 1936): rabbi, emigrated from Rome to Jerusalem on 13 September 1939 with his sons Emanuele and Ruben, joining his son Davide. Returned to Italy for two years in 1953 and then again in 1963.
- Davide Artom (Turin 13 July 1918–Petah Tikva , Palestine 23 November 1939), Florence 13 July 1918 - Rodges, Palestine, 1939), grandson: the first son of the rabbi Elia Samuel Artom to leave from Rome to reach Palestine in December 1938. Never returned to Italy, died at the age of 21.
- Emanuele Menachem Artom (Turin 29 August 1916 - Jerusalem 19 July 1992), grandson: son of Elia Samuel Artom, emigrated in September 1939 with him and his brothers, became a rabbi. Never returned to Italy.
- Meir Artom (Tripoli, Libia -not Florence, unlike usually reported- 6 January 1921–Hibbat Tzion, Palestine  21 October 1947),  grandson: son of Elia Samuel Artom, emigrated to Jerusalem in March 1945. He died prematurely as well; never returned to Italy.
- Ruben Artom (Florence 8 March 1928–Motza, Palestine 5 April 1948),  grandson: he was the last son of Elia Samuel and Giulia Cassuto and he emigrated to Jerusalem in September 1939 at the age of 11 with his father and brothers. He died at war at the age of 31.

Aid organisations

- American Friends of the Hebrew University, New York
- Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, New York

Support network

- Cecil Roth (1899-1970), reader in Post-Biblical Jewish Studies at Oxford, launched a collection to cover the expenses of Cassuto's move from Rome to Jerusalem and lent him money.
- Joseph Herman Hertz (Rebrìn, Reign of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, later Zemplínska Široká, Slovak Republic, 25 September 1872 - Great Britain 14 January 1946), chief rabbi of the United Congregations of the British Empire, pressed the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to employ Cassuto as a Biblical studies professor, but declined their requests for a financial contribution for Cassuto's salary.

Movements

1883Florence

Birth, education and university positions

  • Italian Rabbinic Institute (later Italian Rabbinic College); Regio Liceo Michelangiolo; chief rabbi of Florence; Istituto di studi superiori pratici e di perfezionamento (later Università di Firenze), dismissed from service in 1938 after the Racial Laws.
  • Student,Fixed-term employment,Stable employment,No information
  • Libero docente,Untenured professor,Tenured professor,Others
1932Rome

University position

  • Università di Roma
  • Stable employment
  • Tenured professor
1939Jerusalem

Emigration to Israel

  • Hebrew University
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Untenured professor
1939Rome

Return for business and to move

1939Jerusalem

Return to Israel and university career

  • Hebrew University; Università di Roma, re-admitted as a supernumerary but never took service; ministero degli Affari esteri.
  • Fixed-term employment,Stable employment,No information
  • Untenured professor,Tenured professor,Others
1949Rome

Participation in an academic session

  • Accademia dei Lincei
1951Jerusalem