Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Cesare T. Lombroso (1917-2013)

Rome 9 October 1917 - Cambridge, MA, 19 October 2013

Lives on the move

Emigrant family members

  • Ugo Lombroso (Turin 15 October 1877 - Genoa 10 April 1952) father: physiology professor expelled from the Università di Genova. He stayed in Paris for a short while as a “maître de recherche” at the École de médecine. He returned to Italy with his wife and lived in hiding. He resumed his university position in Genoa at the end of the war.
  • Silvia Forti Lombroso (Verona 2 January 1889 - Rome July 1979) mother: she accompanied her husband Ugo Lombroso throughout Italy and to Paris in 1938. Upon their return to Italy after 1943, they assumed false identities and went into hiding in Tuscany. After a short stay in Rome they returned to Genoa. A writer by profession, she was widowed in 1952. The year after, she went to Cambridge (MA) where her children Nora and Cesare lived with each of their families. In 1956 she purchased a house in Cambridge and moved there, often returning to Italy to spend a few months of the year in Rome. 
  • Irena “Rysia” Kister (Vilnius, then Poland, now Lithuania, 1 April 1923 - Cambridge, MA, September 2012), wife: Polish citizen of Jewish descent. In 1941 she emigrated with her parents, little sister, and aunt from Warsaw to New York, where she met Cesare. They were married in 1943 and had three children: Claudia (New York 1946), Anna (Genoa, 29 September 1948), Paul (Vermont, USA 1950). She returned with her husband to Italy after the war, only to return to New York thereafter. She was heavily invested in Polish cultural activities in the United States. A skilled chef, she published multiple versions of her Old Warsaw Cookbook (1958). At the beginning of the seventies she continued her studies. With her PhD, she started her own practice as a psychologist until she was 75 years old. She never returned to Europe after settling in the US, and neither did her family. They all remained in the US, as did their three children: Claudia Gina Lombroso (NYC, 31 January 1946-); Anna Cristina (Genoa 29 September 1948), psychologist, married to William James Glynn, a statistician,  and mother of Andrew Paul (1986-) and of Amy Christina Lombroso Glynn (1988-); Paolo (Paul) Lombroso (Rutland, VT, 22 July 1950-), professor emeritus in the Child Study Center, Yale University, married to Jan Naegele, and together they have three kids: Adam, Sonia, Christopher Lombroso.
  • Marian Kister (Brody, Poland 1897 - USA 1958) father-in-law: of Jewish descent, he was the editor at “Rój”, active from 1924 to 1940 in Warsaw along with Melchior Wańkowicz. He escaped to New York in 1941. The year after he and his wife founded Roy Publishers, an editing house that aimed to spread Polish culture and literature in the United States. He did not return to live in Europe. 
  • Hanna Silber Kister (Rytro, Poland, 30 May 1902? - USA 1997?) mother-in-law: an editor by profession, she emigrated to the US with her sisters Rena (Poland 1904 - USA 1985), an artist and designer that left for New York along with Hanna and Marian after a stay in Paris; Irena Antonowicz, who assumed her last name during the war (Poland 1912 - USA 1987), and her brother Aleksander Silber with his wife Cyla who he met in Ukraine. Her sister Antonina married Otto Kornhauser (who then changed his last name to Hanson), and emigrated to England. Besides her sister Giza, who returned to Poland after the war, none of them or their children returned to live in Europe. 
  • Elizabeth Kister Clark (Warsaw, 1931-) sister-in-law: she emigrated as a child with her family to the US. She did not return to live in Europe. 
  • Nora Lombroso Rossi (Quarto dei Mille, based in Genoa in 1926, 7 August 1914 - New York 2009), sister: graduated with a degree in law, she held strong anti-fascist ideals as did her whole family. She emigrated with her husband Bruno to Denmark, and then to the US, where she undertook various occupations such as Italian teacher at Cornell University, chef, art importer, and collaborator with the staff of Los Alamos. They had three children: Florence (Ithaca 7 December 1943-), a teacher at various schools in Sunnyvale, California; Frank (Los Alamos 10 November 1944-), medical photographer and laboratory technician in Boston, and Linda (Cambridge, MA 19 March 1953), marketing consultant and financial educator in New York. She did not move back to Italy, although she returned various times. All of her children remained in the US. 
  • Bruno Benedetto Rossi (Venice, 13 April 1905 - Cambridge, 21 November 1993), brother-in-law: husband of Nora Lombroso: an expert on cosmic rays, he was expelled from his university position teaching physics in Padova due to the racial laws. He emigrated to Copenhagen and then Manchester with his wife. In June 1939 they emigrated to the United States, where their children were born. He resumed teaching at the Università di Palermo in 1974, at age 70, after he had already retired from teaching at M.I.T. He maintained his residence and US citizenship. 
  • Leo Ferrero (Turin 1903 - Santa Fe, USA, 1933), cousin: graduated in Florence with a degree in art history in 1926, he left for London in 1928. He then left for Paris in voluntary exile, and in 1932 he went to the US with a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship. He never returned to Europe and died prematurely due to an automobile accident. 
  • Nina Ferrero Raditsa (Turin 1910 - Strada in Chianti, Firenze 4 September 1987), cousin: in 1935 she married the diplomat Bogdan Raditsa with which she had two children: Bosiljka, born in 1939 who was an artist and lived in New York, and Leo Raditsa, born in Switzerland (2 March 1936 - 22 February 2011); she emigrated to the United Stated with her family in 1940. She was a language instructor at Fairleigh Dickinson University until 1977 and was secretary of the International League for Human Rights. She never moved back to Italy, although she often spent periods of time at the family villa in Strada in Chianti. 
  • Bogdan Raditsa (or Radica) (Split 1904 - New York 1993), husband of his cousin Nina: diplomat by profession. He studied in Ljubljana and Florence. In 1924 he worked as a journalist in Paris and then in Athens. From 1933 to 1939 he was a diplomat working in Geneva at the League of Nations. In 1940 he moved to the United States, after spending a short time in London and Belgrade, where he eventually settled as history professor. He did not return to live in Italy.
  • Paola Lombroso Carrara (Pavia 14 March 1871 - Turin 23 January 1954) paternal aunt: the firstborn of Cesare Lombroso and the most politically active. Journalist, writer, and psychologist, she married Mario Carrara in 1899 who had been fired from his university position for refusing to swear allegiance to the Fascist regime. She is the mother of Enrico. She was widowed in 1937, and after the implementation of the racial laws she moved to Geneva in the footsteps of her sister. After Gina’s death, she returned to Italy. 
  • Gina Lombroso Ferrero (Pavia 1872 - Geneva 1944) paternal aunt: graduated with a degree in medicine, she was the author of various books connected to the works of her father Cesare Lombroso. She was accustomed to travelling with her husband Guglielmo Ferrero, and in 1930 she accompanied him to Geneva. Their home became a meeting place for exiled antifascists. She did not return to live in Italy.
  • Guglielmo Ferrero (Portici 1871 - Mont Pèlerin 1942), uncle: already in the Crispi era of Italian Politics, he was a political enemy. A respected historian abroad, in Europe, and in the United States. He was targeted by fascists and in 1930 accepted an invitation to Geneva where he taught contemporary history. He did not return to live in Italy. 
  • Corrado Cavalieri (Venice 23 MArch 1907 - USA, 25 April 2003), cousin from his mother’s side of the family: son of Arturo. He emigrated to the United States in January 1940. As a reference he gave the address of his cousin in New York City Germana Dannenbaum. He did not return to live in Italy. 
  • Ruggero (Roger) Cavalieri (Venice 1920? _): cousin: he joined his brother Corrado in New York in November 1941. After having been in Canada and Cuba (presumably to obtain the proper documents to move to the US). Their sister Renata also emigrated to the US. 

Movements

1917Rome

Birth and Upbringing

  • Student
1926Palermo

Move to Palermo with Family

  • Student
1935Genoa

Move to Genoa with Family

  • Università di Genova, Faculty of Medicine
  • Student
1938France

Relocation following the enactment of the Racial Laws

1939Le Havre

Destination before Leaving for the US

1939New York

Arrival in the United States

1939Baltimore (MD)

Student at John Hopkins University

  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • Student
1941Boston

Internship

  • Harvard Medical Service, Boston City Hospital
  • Student
1941Baltimore (MD)/New York

Studies in Baltimore, Political Activity in New York

  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine; Mazzini Society, New York.
  • Student
1946Genoa

Return to Italy, Graduation, and Volunteer Work

  • Università di Genova, Faculty of Medicine
  • Student,Fixed-term employment
  • Junior lecturer
1947New York

In New York with Family

1947Genoa

Return to Genoa

1951Boston

Return to Boston

  • Board certification in neurology and psychiatry MGH; Harvard Medical School, Seizure Unit, and Boston Children's Hospital.
  • Fixed-term employment,Stable employment
  • Doctor / Dentist,Researcher,Untenured professor,Tenured professor
1956Boston/Genoa

Commute to Italy

  • Università di Genova, Faculty of Pharmacy
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente
2013Cambridge (MA)