Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Elia Samuele Artom (1887-1965)

Other headings: Elia Samuel

Turin 15 June 1887 - Rome 25 February 1965

Lives on the move

Emigrant family members

  • Emanuele Menachem Artom (Turin 29 August 1916 -Jerusalem 19 July 1992), son: graduated in Letters, rabbi of Perugia, emigrated on 14 December 1939 as a student of the Hebrew University. He married Elena Lea Rossi in 1942. He held several positions in government from 1945 to 1973. Later, he spent periods in Italy, first as chief rabbi of Venice (1973-76) and later of Turin (1985-87), and finally as a professor at the Collegio rabbinico italiano. He never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Elena Lea Rossi (Ancona 18 March 1920), daughter in law: unable to enrol at the university due to the racial laws, emigrated in 1939 with her family to Mandatory Palestine, where she met and in 1942 married Emanuele Menachem Artom. She published historical and genealogical research on the Artom and De’ Rossi families. She never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Davide Artom (Turin 13 July 1918 - Petah Tikva, Mandatory Palestine, 23 November 1938), son: left Rome for Palestine in December of 1938, where he settled on Rodges kibbutz as a farmer. At age 21, he died of meningitis at the Beilinson Hospital of Petah Tikva. He never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Meir Artom (Tripoli 6 January 1921 - Hibbat Tzion, Mandatory Palestine, 21 October 1947), son: student, farmer, and lithographer, emigrated to Jerusalem in March 1945. On 6 June 1947, he married Miriam Campagnano (Alexandria, Egypt, 25 June 1922), a nurse. He died at 26 years of age. He never returned to Italy permanently. 
  • Ruben Artom (Florence 8 March 1928 - Motza, Mandatory Palestine, 5 April 1948), son: in September of 1939, at 11 years old, he emigrated with his father to Jerusalem, where he studied at the agricultural school Mikveh Israel. He died at 31 years of age in the battle of Motza during the Arab-Israeli War. He never returned to Italy permanently. 
  • Umberto Cassuto (Florence 16 September 1883 - Jerusalem 18 December 1951), brother-in-law, brother of Giulia Cassuto Artom: university professor in Florence, then in Rome, emigrated with his wife and two children to Jerusalem in 1939, where he had a part-time job as a biblical studies professor at the Hebrew University and where he settled since October 1940. In 1945, he was re-admitted in a supernumerary post to the Sapienza University in Rome. He never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Bice Corcos Cassuto (Livorno 18 September 1888 - Kevutzat Yavne, Israel, November 1969), sister in law: wife of Umberto, when she was 51, she emigrated with her husband and two daughters to Palestine on 5 June 1939. She never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Milka Cassuto Salzmann (Florence 23 September 1908 - Jerusalem 21 July 1993), niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, teacher, emigrated with her parents and sister to Palestine on 5 June 1939. In 1951 she married Mordechai Salzmann. She never returned to Italy permanently. 
  • Lea Cassuto Rocca (Florence 23 December 1911 - Jerusalem 9 May 2006), niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, teacher, emigrated with her parents and sister to Palestine on 5 June 1939. She never returned to Italy permanently. 
  • Hulda Cassuto Campagnano (Florence 17 January 1914 - Kevutzat Yavne, Israel, 17 September 1992) niece: daughter of Umberto and Bice, widow of Saul Campagnano, who had been deported to Auschwitz from Florence in 1943. She emigrated to Palestine with her children and nieces and parents of Anna Di Gioacchino Cassuto on 22 March 1945. She never returned to Italy permanently.

Aid organisations

  • Irgun ‘Ole Italia

References

  • Harry Torczyner (1886-1973, then Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai), biblical studies professor at the Hebrew University and first president of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
  • Moshe Zvi Segal (1876-1968), biblical studies professor at Hebrew University.
  • Hanoch Albeck (1890-1972), Talmudic scholar at Hebrew University.
  • Hiram Pflaum (1900-1962), Romance Languages professor at Hebrew University.
  • Simcha Assaf (1889-1953), professor of Talmudic literature at Hebrew University, then lecturer, and member of the Supreme Court.
  • Joseph Klausner (1874-1958), historian and linguist, professor at the Hebrew University, Zionist, presidential candidate in the 1949 elections against Chaim Weitzmann, great uncle of the writer Amos Oz.
  • Umberto Cassuto (1883-1951), biblical studies professor at Hebrew University.
  • Abraham Kahana (1874-1946), teacher and Jewish studies scholar. 
  • Abraham H. Fränkel (1891-1965), mathematician and lecturer at Hebrew University.
  • Ben-Tzion Meir Hai Uziel (1880-1953), Chief Rabbi of Mandatory Palestine, then of Israel. 
  • David Prato (1882-1951), rabbi
  • Avraham Elmalih (1885-1967), giornalist, zionist, then representative in Israeli parliament.
  • Enzo Bonaventura (1891-1948), professor of psychology at Hebrew University.

Support network

  • Esther Berliner, offered Meir temporary housing in Tel Aviv (Rechov Yarkon, 52) since 15 October 1939.
  • Hiram Pflaum (1900-1962), professor of Romance Languages at Hebrew University, suggested Meir to the lecturer Abraham H. Fränkel for a position as an Italian professor. 
  • Harry Torczyner (1886-1973), then Naftali Herz Tur-Sinai, professor of biblical studies at Hebrew University and first president of the Academy of the Hebrew Language, put Artom in contact with Eliezer Rigen, who introduced him to Yaakov Sh. Engel, the superintendent of “Mizrachi”,  for a teaching position. 
  • David Prato (1882-1951) rabbi, intervened at the directorate of the agricultural school Mikve Israel to reduce school fees for Meir Artom
  • Moshe Auerbach (1881-1976), rabbi, and president of the school of Petah Tikva supported Meir’s request to teach at the “Moria” high school in Tel Aviv. 
  • Enzo Sereni, a Zionist, volunteer for the intelligence department of the British army during the Second World War, gave 5000 Italian lire to Meir Artom in Sicily (May 1944). Attempted but failed to acquire immigration certificates for Artom.  

Movements

1887Turin

Birth and Education

  • Student
1908Florence

Rabbinical Studies and Instructor

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano
  • Student,Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1912Ferrara

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1913Turin

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1915Belluno

Military Rabbi during World War I

1915Turin

Rabbi and Instructor

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1920Tripoli

Chief Rabbi

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Others
1924Alexandria

Chief Rabbi

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Others
1926Florence

Chief Rabbi and Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1933Tel Aviv

Italian Professor on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1934Florence

Chief Rabbi and Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1935Rome

Director of the Collegio rabbinico italiano

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1937Florence

Non-tenure Track Professor

  • Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Teacher
1938Rome

Director of the Collegio rabbinico italiano

  • Collegio rabbinico italiano; Università di Firenze
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Libero docente,Others
1939Tel Aviv

  • Unemployed
1939Gerusalemme

Rabbi and instructor

  • In 1942, Artom was the rabbi of the Italian synagogue in Jersualem; after the war, he frequently returned to Italy for teaching assignments at the S.H. Margulies Rabbinical School in Turin (academic years 1953-1954 & 1955-1958) and the Collegio rabbinico italiano in Rome (academic years 1959-65). During this period he also participated in numerous conferences.
  • Fixed-term employment,Stable employment,No information
  • Teacher,Others
1965Rome