Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942)

Portici (Naples) 21 July 1871 - Mont-Pèlerin (Switzerland) 3 August 1942

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Emigrant family members

  • Gina Lombroso Ferrero (Pavia 1872 - Geneva 1944) wife: graduated with a degree in medicine, was the author of various books connected to the works of her father Cesare Lombroso. She was accustomed to traveling with her husband Guglielmo Ferrero, and in 1930 she accompanied him to Geneva. Their home became a meeting place for exiled antifascists. She never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Leo Ferrero (Turin 1903 - Santa Fe, USA, 1933), son: graduated in Florence with a degree in art history in 1926, he left for London in 1928. He then left for Paris in voluntary exile, and in 1932 he went to the US with a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship. He died prematurely in an automobile accident.
  • Nina Ferrero Raditsa (Turin 1910 - Strada in Chianti, Florence 4 September 1987), daughter: in 1935 she married the diplomat Bogdan Raditsa with which she had two children: Bosiljka, born in 1939 who was an artist and lived in New York, and Leo Raditsa, born in Switzerland (2 March 1936 - 22 February 2011); she emigrated to the United States with her family in 1940. She was a language instructor at Fairleigh Dickinson University until 1977 and was secretary of the International League for Human Rights. She never returned to Italy permanently, although she often spent periods of time at the family villa in Strada in Chianti.
  • Bogdan Raditsa (or Radica) (Split 1904 - New York 1993), son-in-law, married to Nina: diplomat by profession. He studied in Ljubljana and Florence. In 1924 he worked as a journalist in Paris and then in Athens. From 1933 to 1939 he was a diplomat working in Geneva at the League of Nations. In 1940 he moved to the United States, after spending a short time in London and Belgrade, where he eventually settled as a history professor. He never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Paola Lombroso Carrara (Pavia 14 March 1871 - Turin 23 January 1954), sister-in-law: Cesare Lombroso’s first dughter, and the most politically active; journalist, writer, and psychologist, she had married Mario Carrara in 1899 who lost his university position in 1931 for refusing to take the Fascist oath. She was widowed in 1937, and after the passage of the racial laws, she moved to Geneva like her sister. After Gina’s death, she returned to Italy.
  • Ugo Lombroso (Turin 15 October 1877 - Genoa 10 April 1952), brother-in-law: physiology professor expelled from the Università di Genova. He moved to Paris where he became a “maître de recherche” at the École de médecine. He returned to Italy with his wife where they lived in hiding. He returned to Genoa in 1946 where he was hired once again at the university.
  • Silvia Forti Lombroso (Verona 2 January 1889 - Rome July 1979), sister-in-law: she followed her husband Ugo Lombroso throughout his movements around Italy, and in 1938 to Paris. When they returned to Italy after 1943 they went into hiding in Tuscany under false identities. After a stay in Rome, they returned to Genoa. A writer by profession, she was widowed in 1952, and a year later she went to Cambridge, MA where her two children, Nora and Cesare, were living. Nora and Cesare lived with their respective families in Cambridge where Lombroso settled down in 1956. There, she purchased a house but would spend a few months of the year in Rome. At the end of the 1960s, she returned to Italy.
  • Cesare Lombroso (Rome 1917 - Cambridge, MA, 2013), nephew: he left Italy in 1939 and went to the US; in 1943 he married Irena “Rysia” Kister in New York. They had three children together: Claudia G.S. Lombroso (New York 1946), Anna (Genoa 1948), and Paul (USA 1950). After the war, the couple returned to Italy with their first-born daughter. Cesare continued his studies in Genoa where he obtained a degree. In 1950 they left Italy for the US, where Cesare became an esteemed child’s neuropsychiatrist at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Boston. In order to keep his professorship, he returned to teach in Genoa where he taught a few months of the year, but he remained for the most part in the United States where he also obtained citizenship. He never returned to Italy permanently.
  • Irena "Rysia" Kister (Vilnius, Polonia, now Lithuania, 1 April 1923 - Cambridge, MA, September 2012), niece-in-law, married to Cesare: Polish of Jewish origins, in 1941 she emigrated with her parents, little sister, and aunt from Warsaw to New York where she met Cesare. She was politically active and engaged in many Polish cultural initiatives in the United States. An excellent cook, she published the Old Warsaw Cookbook (1958), which came to be reprinted in various editions. At the beginning of the seventies, she continued her studies and completed her PhD in psychology at 75 years old. Neither she nor her family returned to Europe; they all remained in the United States, as did their children.
  • Nora Lombroso Rossi (Quarto dei Mille, part of Genoa since 1926, 7 August 1914 - New York 2009), niece: graduated with a law degree, she was an antifascist like her family. She emigrated with her husband Bruno to Denmark, then to England, and finally to the United States where she had various professions, from Italian professor at Cornell Universit to chef, to art importer and collaborator with the staff of Los Alamos. She had three children: Florence (Ithaca 7 December 1940-), who was a teacher in Sunnyvale, California; Frank (Los Alamos 10 November 19440), who was a medical photographer and laboratory technician in Boston, and Linda (Cambridge, MA, 19 March 1953), who was a marketing consultant and financial educator in New York. She never returned to Italy permanently, although she spent various periods of time there. All of her children remained in the USA.
  • Bruno Benedetto Rossi (Venice 13 April 1905 - Cambridge 21 November 1993), nephew-in-law, married to Nora: one of the top experts on cosmic rays, was expelled from his position as a physics professor in Padua because of the racial laws. He emigrated with his wife to Copenhagen, then to Manchester in England, and in June 1939 to the United States, where their children were born. In 1974, at 70 years old and already retired from teaching at MIT, he was hired by the Università di Palermo and he spent some time of the year in Italy. His primary residence, however, was in the US and he kept US citizenship. He never returned to Italy permanently.