Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Giuliano Gerbi (1905-1976)

Florence, September 5, 1905 - Genoa, January 25, 1976

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Emigrant family members

  • Claudio Gerbi (Florence 1907 - New York 1990), brother: doctor, fired from the Maggiore di Milano Hospital due to the implementation of the racial laws in 1938. During this time, he emigrated to the United States (on September 14, before his two brothers). He moved to Boston before settling down in Cleveland. From 1942 he moved his office to Manhattan, New York, where he continued his practice until he was 80 years old. He did not return to live in Italy.
  • Antonello Gerbi (Florence 15 May 1904 - Civenna, Como 26 July 1976), brother: Director of the Research Office of the Banca Commerciale Italiana in Milan since 1932. The CEO of Comit, after racial laws, convinced him to move to Peru in October 1938, with a job in the most important bank in the country. He returned to Italy with his family ten years later, in 1948, and was reinstated in his place.
  • Daniele Gerbi (Lima 28 November 1941), nephew: son of Antonello Gerbi, he moved to Italy in 1948 with his family when he was 6 and a half years old. In Milan, he obtained his high school diploma and obtained a law degree. He worked in the Banca Commerciale for ten years before becoming an independent contractor.
  • Sandro Gerbi (Lima 31 October 1943), nephew: son of Antonello Gerbi, born in Peru, he moved to Italy with his family in 1948. In Milano, he obtained his high school diploma and obtained a law degree. He became a financial journalist and dedicated himself to research, writing, and cultural journalism.
  • Edmo Gerbi (Florence 1874 - Lima 1944), father: stockbroker by profession following in his family’s footsteps. In the spring of 1939 he emigrated from Florence to the United States. He went to his son’s in Cleveland. His son, however, occupied with his profession as a doctor, would not take care of him. In the summer of 1940 he moved to Lima to his son Antonello’s. He had a difficult time adjusting and died four years later. He did not return to Italy.
  • Herma Schimmerling Gerbi (Vienna 21 October 1912 - Milan 21 September 2012), sister-in-law: wife of Antonello Gerbi, Austrian-born of Jewish origin, she met her husband in Vienna in 1931 when she worked in a photo lab. After the Anschluss in 1938, she fled Vienna and left for London; in September 1939 she left to join her boyfriend in Peru. They got married in Lima in January 1940. They had two children: Daniele and Sandro. Following her husband, her and the children returned to live in Italy in 1948.
  • Alessandro Levi (Venice 19 November 1881 - Bern 5 September 1953), uncle: he was the younger brother of Gerbi’s mother, Iginia Levi. He became a university professor in 1907. He was expelled from the University of Parma in 1938 due to the racial laws. He was a militant antifascist since 1924-1925. He was sent into internal exile in Pescara in 1940. After 25 July 1943, he returned to Florence; he sought refuge in Switzerland with his wife Sarina Nathan and he taught law with Luigi Einaudi in Geneva. He eventually returned to Italy where he continued to teach.
  • Sarina Nathan Levi (Livorno 16 July 1884 - Florence 22 December 1976), aunt: she came from a British family of British origin who were sympathizers of the Mazzini government. Her uncle Ernesto Nathan had been the mayor of Rome. She married Alessandro Levi in 1911 in Florence. She and her husband lived in Geneva as exiles. She eventually returned to Italy.
  • Piero Treves (Milan 17 November 1911 - Nice 7 July 1992), cousin: son of the socialist deputy Claudio and Olga Levi. He graduated in 1931 and specialized in the history of the ancient world. He was unable to engage in academic activities due to political reasons and then due to racial reasons. He emigrated to England at the end of September 1938 with his mother and brother Paolo. He settled in Cambridge and obtained a scholarship to study at St. John’s College. In 1941 he followed his brother to BBC as a translator, announcer, and political journalist for Radio London. He returned to Italy in 1955 and by 1962 had received a position as professor.
  • Paolo Treves (Milan 27 July 1908 - Fregenae 4 August 1958), cousin: Piero’s older brother. He graduated with a law degree in 1929. He was restricted from engaging in academic activity due to his political positions. In September of 1938 he moved to England with his brother and mother. He had various jobs before finding a stable position at the BBC in 1940. He became a speaker for Radio London. He returned to Italy in 1945. In addition to his political activities and his position in government from 1948 to 1958, he began teaching at Università di Firenze from 1950 until his premature death.