Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019 Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Gina Lombroso Ferrero (1872-1944)

Pavia 5 October 1872 - Geneva 27 March 1944

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Emigrant family members

  • Guglielmo Ferrero (Portici 1871 - Mont Pèlerin 1942), husband: already in the Crispi era of Italian Politics, he was a political enemy. A respected historian abroad, in Europe, and in the United States. He was targeted by fascists and in 1930 accepted an invitation to Geneva where he taught contemporary history. He did not return to live or work in Italy on a permanent basis.
  • Leo Ferrero (Turin 1903 - Santa Fe, USA, 1933), son: graduated in Florence with a degree in art history in 1926, he left for London in 1928. He then left for Paris in voluntary exile, and in 1932 he went to the US with a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship. He never returned to Europe and died prematurely due to an automobile accident.
  • Nina Ferrero Raditsa (Turin 1910 - Strada in Chianti, Firenze 4 September 1987), daughter: in 1935 she married the diplomat Bogdan Raditsa with which she had two children: Bosiljka, born in 1939 who was an artist and lived in New York, and Leo Raditsa, born in Switzerland (2 March 1936 - 22 February 2011); she emigrated to the United Stated with her family in 1940. She was a language instructor at Fairleigh Dickinson University until 1977 and was secretary of the International League for Human Rights. She never moved back to Italy, although she often spent periods of time at the family villa in Strada in Chianti.
  • Bogdan Raditsa (or Radica) (Split 1904 - New York 1993), son-in-law, husband of Nina: diplomat by profession. He studied in Ljubljana and Florence. In 1924 he worked as a journalist in Paris and then in Athens. From 1933 to 1939 he was a diplomat working in Geneva at the League of Nations. In 1940 he moved to the United States, after spending a short time in London and Belgrade, where he eventually settled as history professor. He did not return to live or work in Italy on a permanent basis.
  • Paola Lombroso Carrara (Pavia 14 March 1871 - Turin 23 January 1954) older sister: the firstborn of Cesare Lombroso and the most politically active. Journalist, writer, and psychologist, she married Mario Carrara in 1899 who had been fired from his university position for refusing to swear allegiance to the Fascist regime. She is the mother of Enrico. She was widowed in 1937, and after the implementation of the racial laws she moved to Geneva in the footsteps of her sister. After Gina’s death, she returned to Italy.
  • Ugo Lombroso (Turin 15 October 1877 - Genoa 10 April 1952), brother: physiology professor and son of the famous anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he was expelled from the Università di Genoa and moved temporarily to Paris; in Paris he worked as “maître de recherche” at the École de médecine. With his wife Silvia he returned to Italy and lived in hiding. He was employed once again at the university in Genoa, where he returned in 1946, but was given a supernumerary position.
  • Silvia Forti Lombroso (Verona 2 January 1889 - Rome July 1979), sister-in-law: she followed her husband Ugo Lombroso throughout his movements around Italy, and in 1938 to Paris. When they returned to Italy after 1943 they went into hiding in Tuscany under false identities. After a stay in Rome they returned to Genoa. A writer by profession, she was widowed in 1952, and a year later she went to Cambridge, MA where her two children, Nora and Cesare, were living. Nora and Cesare lived with their respective families in Cambridge where Lombroso settled down in 1956. There, she purchased a house but would spend a few months of the year in Rome.
  • Cesare Lombroso (Rome 1917 - Cambridge, MA, 2013), nephew: he left Italy in 1939 and went to the US; in 1943 he married Irena “Rysia” Kister in New York. They had three children together: Claudia G.S. Lombroso (New York 1946), Anna (Genoa 1948), Paul (USA 1950). After the war the couple returned to Italy with their first-born daughter. Cesare continued his studies in Genoa where he obtained a degree. In 1950 they left Italy for the US, where Cesare became an esteemed child’s neuropsychiatrist at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Boston. In order to keep his professorship, he returned to teach in Genoa where he taught a few months of the year, but he remained for the most part in the United States where he also obtained citizenship. He did not return to work or live in Italy on a permanent basis.
  • Irena "Rysia" Kister (Vilnius, Polonia, now Lithuania, 1 April 1923 - Cambridge, MA, September 2012), niece-in-law, Cesare’s wife: Polish of Jewish origins, in 1941 she emigrated with her parents, little sister, and aunt from Warsaw to New York where she met Cesare. She was politically active and engaged in many Polish cultural initiatives in the United States. An excellent cook, she published the Old Warsaw Cookbook (1958), which came to be reprinted in various editions. At the beginning of the seventies, she continued her studies and completed her PhD in psychology at 75 years old. Neither her nor her family returned to Europe. They all remained in the United States, as did their children: Claudia Gina Lombroso (New York 31 January 1946-); Anna Cristina (Genoa 29 September 1948-), a psychologist who married statistician Williams James Glynn and was the mother of Andre Paul (1986-) and Amy Christina Lombroso Glynn (1988-); Paolo (Paul Lombroso (Rutland, VT, 22 July 1950-), now emirate professor in the Child Study Center at Yale University, who married Jan Naegele and had three children: Adam, Sonia, and Christopher Lombroso.
  • Nora Lombroso Rossi (Quarto dei Mille, part of Genoa since 1926, 7 August 1914 - New York 2009), niece: graduated with a law degree, she was an antifascist like her family. She emigrated with her husband Bruno to Denmark, then to England, and finally to the United States where she had various professions, from Italian professor at Cornell University, to chef, to art importer and collaborator with the staff of Los Alamos. She had three children: Florence (Ithaca 7 December 1943-), who was a teacher in Sunnyvale, California; Frank (Los Alamos 10 November 19440), who was a medical photographer and laboratory technician in Boston, and Linda (Cambridge, MA, 19 March 1953), who was a marketing consultant and financial educator in New York. She did not return to live or work in Italy on a permanent basis, although she spent various periods of time there. All of her children remained in the USA.
  • Bruno Benedetto Rossi (Venice 13 April 1905 - Cambridge 21 November 1993), nephew-in-law, Nora’s husband: one of the top experts on cosmic rays, expelled from his position as a physics professor in Padua because of the racial laws. He emigrated with his wife to Copenhagen, then to Manchester in England, and in June 1939 to the United States, where their children were born. In 1974, at 70 years old and already retired from teaching at MIT, he was hired by the Università di Palermo and he spent some time of the year in Italy. His primary residence, however, was in the US and he kept US citizenship. He did not return to work or live in Italy on a permanent basis.