Patrizia Guarnieri

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy.

Migrants, Exiles and Refugees Fleeing for Political and Racial Reasons

©2019-Author(s) Published by Firenze University Press
e-ISBN: 978-88-6453-872-3 | DOI: 10.36253/978-88-6453-872-3

Intellectuals Displaced from Fascist Italy

Henry Rudolph (Heinrich Rudolf) Immerwahr (1916-2013)

Breslau (German Reich, later Poland) 28 February 1916 - Chapel Hill (USA) 15 September 2013

Lives on the move

Emigrant family members

  • Kurt Immerwahr, father: a businessman, emigrated from Germany to the United Kingdom at the end of the 1930s with his wife.
  • Johanna Katalin Freund, mother: emigrated from Germany to the United Kingdom at the end of the 1930s with her husband.

Aid organisations

  • International Student Service, Switzerland
  • Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, New York
  • American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia


  • Giorgio Pasquali (1885-1952): Immerwahr's thesis advisor in Florence, Pasquali wrote Immerwahr a letter of recommendation for the International Student Service in 1938; Pasquali also introduced Immerwahr to the classical archaeologist Karl Lehmann-Hartleben.

Support network

  • Karl Lehmann-Hartleben (1894-1960), a professor of classical archaeology in Münster, he moved to the US in 1935 and became a professor at the Institute of Fine Arts at the City University of New York: Lehmann helped Immerwahr obtain a scholarship at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and later a scholarship at Yale.  
  • Stefan Joseph (later Stephen) Zand (Łódź 1898 - 1963), an aeronautic engineer who moved from Poland to the US in 1925: his house in Long Island, NY was the first address that Immerwahr provided to the US authorities.  


1916Breslau (later Wrocław)

Birth and Education

  • Johannes-Gymnasium
  • Student

Move to Florence

  • Università di Firenze
  • Student
1939Great Britain

Reunion with parents


Scholarship at the ASCSA

  • American School of Classical Studies at Athens
  • Student
1940New York

Emigration to the United States

1941Haverford, Pennsylvania

First living accommodation

  • Student
1941New Haven

Doctorate at Yale

  • Student
1946Cambridge (MA)

Scholarship to Harvard Financed by the Guggenheim Foundation

  • Harvard University; Guggenheim Foundation
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Researcher
1947Chapel Hill

First job at Yale

  • Yale University
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Untenured professor
1957Chapel Hill

Move to Chapel Hill

  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Fixed-term employment,Stable employment
  • Untenured professor,Tenured professor

Director of ASCSA

  • American School of Classical Studies at Athens
  • Fixed-term employment
  • Tenured professor
1982c. 1982 Chapel Hill

Return to the United States

  • Not employed
2013Chapel Hill